Saturday, February 21, 2004


Friday, February 20, 2004

More inaccurate Forbes Purchase information off the Internet...

Chapter 6 - The Settlements
The period 1814-1818 had been costly for Forbes and Company, and it passed into the hands of Colin Mitchel of Havana, Cuba, and others.

They reorganized it, after the Forbes Spanish land grant was declared legal in 1835, as the Apalachicola Land Company. The Indians no longer occupied the area of Apalachicola Bay nor the ceded lands of the Forbes purchase.

Colin Mitchell's lawsuit against the U.S. which gave him clear title to the Forbes Purchase.

The following post comes from a website maintained by Carrabelle Coastal Properties. More misconceptions:

1) "ran a string of trading posts throughout the Panhandle region"-
not true- At any given time there was only one trading post. Originally it was located near where U.S. 98 crosses the Wakulla River. Bowles raided it in 1792 and 1800. After the last raid, it was closed. The only reason a trading post was opened at Prospect Bluff on the Apalachicola River after 1804 was because James Innerarity was forced to agree to this concession in order to get the chiefs to sign the Forbes Purchase at Chiscatalofa on May 25, 1804.

2) "north past present day Tallahassee and into Georgia"-
also false.... only the southwestern corner of Leon County was ever included in the Forbes Purchase.

3) "John Forbes, partner and associate of Panton and Leslie, purchased the company shortly before Spain ceded the territory and then sold his interest to a group headed by Colin Mitchell."
Not sure about John Forbes purchasing the entire company but he did change the name to "John Forbes & Co." just after the Forbes Purchase in 1804. The statement about "before Spain ceded the territory" is confusing. Do they mean the Forbes Purchase acreage or East and West Florida to the U.S.? Forbes certainly did not sell his interest in the company to Mitchell. In October 1817( the same year Forbes moved to Cuba), John Forbes applied for Spanish permission to deed the bulk of the Forbes Purchase to Colin Mitchell who then lived in Havana. After this Forbes retired from John Forbes & Co. and turned everything over to John Innerarity in Pensacola and James Innerarity in Mobile.

Obviously, there's still a lot of confusion over the Forbes Purchase.

Panton, Leslie, and Co. was a trading company founded by expatriate Britains based in Pensacola that ran a string of trading posts (credited by some sources as America’s first chain store operation) throughout the Panhandle region. Through sharp business practices they managed to indebt the local Indian population to the company for large amounts of money, which was satisfied by the Indians giving the company title to more than a million acres of land from the Apalachicola river east to St. Marks and north past present day Tallahassee and into Georgia. John Forbes, partner and associate of Panton and Leslie, purchased the company shortly before Spain ceded the territory and then sold his interest to a group headed by Colin Mitchell. When Florida became US territory in 1821 (at time when Apalachicola’s incorporated name was Cottonton), a court battle began that would take years to resolve. Finally, in 1835, in the last opinion handed down by the Supreme Court with Chief Justice John Marshall presiding, the Forbes Purchase was upheld as valid and legal.

Here's the ' 23 court case where Popham argued that the Forbes Purchase included the land submerged by Apalachicola Bay. Even though the Florida Supreme Court ruled against him, one of the justices wrote a dissenting opinion which agreed with the idea that the Indians had the right to deed John Forbes & Co. the bottom of Apalachicola Bay.

Other cases which cite this case go all the way up to 1998 so the litigation over the Forbes Purchase has continued for almost 200 years!

Humphry F. Osmond, 86; Came Up With Term 'Psychedelic'

By Adam Bernstein
Washington Post Staff Writer
Wednesday, February 18, 2004; Page B07

Humphry F. Osmond, 86, the British-born psychiatrist who introduced the
word "psychedelic" to describe the effects of hallucinatory drugs, died
of cardiac arrhythmia Feb. 6 at his daughter's home in Appleton, Wis.

Dr. Osmond coined "psychedelic" while conducting controversial studies
on schizophrenia, a mental disorder, and alcoholism.

Starting in the late 1940s, he worked on the theory that mind-altering
substances mirror the perceptions of a schizophrenic. He administered
mescaline and lyser gic acid diethylamide (LSD) to normal volunteers --
including doctors -- so they could describe their experiences while

With that information, he said he felt doctors could better understand
and care for their schizophrenic patients. He saw this as a vital
approach in an era when comparably less was known about the disorder.

Sensing little support for his work in England, Dr. Osmond left in 1951
to accept an appointment at a psychiatric hospital in Weyburn,
Saskatchewan. It was a desolate place, but he found ample research
from the Canadian government and the Rockefeller Foundation. There also
was a desperate need for experts to treat the mounting cases of
schizophrenia and alcoholism.

He and a few Canadian colleagues, notably Abraham Hoffer, had
hypothesized that schizophrenia was the result of a body producing its
own toxic compound similar to mescaline; that, they said, caused
hallucinations. They focused on dietary-based treatments, such as
niacin to their patients' diets.

They extended their LSD research to alcoholics on the theory that
chronic drinkers quit only after experiencing the hallucinations of
delirium tremens. The doctors decided to use LSD to induce similar
visions, and they claimed promising results.

Among the followers of this work was Aldous Huxley, author of "Brave
World." Huxley asked if he could be a test subject. Dr. Osmond agreed
but later said he did not "relish the possibility, however remote, of
finding a small but discreditable niche in literary history as the man
who drove Aldous Huxley mad."

Huxley, who found the experience mystical and revelatory, wrote about
his mescaline use in the book "The Doors of Perception" (1954). He and
Dr. Osmond maintained a correspondence, the result of which was the
scientist's coining the word "psychedelic" in 1956.

Preparing for a conference, Dr. O smond asked Huxley's advice about
describing the effects of mescaline. Huxley replied with
from Greek words meaning "to show" and "the spirit." He also
a rhyme: "To make this mundane world sublime / Take half a gram of

Dr. Osmond instead chose "psychedelic," from the Greek for mind or soul
and a form of the verb "to show," deloun. He added in a note back to
Huxley: "To fathom Hell or soar angelic / Just take a pinch of

He told the New York Academy of Sciences in 1957: "I have tried to find
an appropriate name for the agents under discussion: a name that will
include the concepts of enriching the mind and enlarging the vision. .
. My choice, because it is clear, euphonious and uncontaminated by
associations, is psychedelic, mind-manifesting."

Years later, he said he disapproved of Timothy Leary, the
icon who encouraged people to "turn on, tune i n, drop out." To Dr.
Osmond, drugs were "mysterious, dangerous substances and must be

Humphry Fortescue Osmond was a native of Surrey, England. He was doing
his residency in psychiatry at St. George's Hospital in London when he
read about Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann's pioneering work on the
of LSD. That inspired Dr. Osmond's early work with schizophrenia.

He later worked for institutes and hospitals in New Jersey and Alabama
and retired in the early 1990s.

Survivors include his wife, Amy Roffey "Jane" Osmond, whom he married
1947, of Appleton; three children; a sister; and five grandchildren.


I've got several of Humphry's books and always regret not getting them
autographed when he lived here. He was invited to the Chukker WankaFest by
Walter Alves, but Walter said he declined and thought it "scared him." Wonder
if Leary ever made it to Chukker when he went to school here? Likely not, since
he was a straight arrow back then. Somebody shoulda asked when he was here.
Course by then he was getting the alzheimers and couldn't remember the past so
well. He couldn't remember Neil Cassady's name when he was here with Kesey. But
then again . . . sometimes I can't either!

Thursday, February 19, 2004

Osmond, Humphry F.

Psychiatrist Humphry Osmond bubbled with enthusiasm. A pioneer psychedelic researcher who, among other contributions, coined the term psychedelic, his world fresh and new; something exciting around the corner to be seen by those with open eyes. People described him in superlatives: brightest, most creative, brilliant, charismatic, a roman candle of new ideas.

He was born in Surrey, UK in 1917, completed secondary school at age 18 intending to become a banker but instead went to work for an architect. The latter stint had a lasting influence upon him, though he subsequently attended Guy?s Hospital Medical School. During WWII, he served as a surgeon-lieutenant in the Royal Navy, where he took special courses to become a ship?s psychiatrist. After discharge from the Navy in 1947, he did a formal residency in psychiatry and married London nurse, Jane Roffey. During his psychiatric residency, he came across the Swiss pharmacologist Albert Hoffman?s graphic description of the psychological and behavior effects of LSD. Humphry saw these outcomes as very similar to the florid symptoms of early schizophrenia, and with his colleague John Smythies, came up with a novel theory that an LSD-like substance was responsible for the symptoms of schizophrenia, launching decades of searching for a compound, called variously adrenochrome, adrenoxin, adrenolutin, and ?the mauve compound.? As this idea ran counter to the Freudian-dominated mental health establishment in England, Osmond and Smythies emigrated to North America in 1951 to find a more congenial intellectual environment. They ended up at a large, isolated, custodial mental hospital on the windswept plains of Saskatchewan. The Superintendent resisted innovation and was soon deposed by a rebellious young staff. Humphry became superintendent and proved to have amazing administrative skills. Applying his divergent thinking to organizational issues, he was responsible for numerous innovations, resulting in a prestigious Hospital Improvement Award from the American Psychiatric Association. He revamped training for attendants, who became psychiatric nurses and created a new category of nurse consultants to assist the ward staff. He helped psychologist Ted Ayllon establish the first mental hospital ward based on principles of behavior modification. He reversed the previous irrational authority system, making nurses responsible for ward administration, with psychiatrists serving as their consultants. This put authority where it belonged, with ward nurses on the line, rather than pretending that it resided in remote physicians who occasionally showed up to sign medication slips and ward records.

In Saskatchewan, Osmond conducted LSD work on several fronts. He obtained a sizable grant from the Rockefeller Foundation for Biochemical studies which were done mainly by his colleague Abram Hoffer at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon. Hoffer later went on to explore treatments for mental disorder based on dietary changes and large doses of vitamins. Osmond also encouraged investigation of the psychological effects of LSD, in particular the way the drug altered perception of time and space. Under his supervision, architects took LSD and spent time on hospital wards to consider designing more appropriate mental health facilities. His longstanding interests in perception inspired his colleague Tadeasz Weckowicz to undertake laboratory studies on size and distance constancy, which Osmond felt were critical to the perceptual changes in schizophrenia. He was also interested in Sir Francis Galton?s theories of visual imagery, and in using them as a personality typology.

Osmond explored the use of LSD for alcoholics resistant to other forms of treatment. He had read accounts of alcoholics who sobered up following the hallucinations of delirium tremens. Osmond reasoned that LSD-induced hallucinations might have equally therapeutic effects. In 1956, he and Abram Hoffer administered LSD to Bill W., co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous. Some promising results were obtained with clinical populations before the drug scare of the 1970s ended the research. Osmond coined the terms psychotomimetic to describe the ways in which LSD created a model psychosis (root mime or mimic) and psychedelic (psyche for mind and Delos for seem or manifest). In 1953 he administered 400 mg. of mescaline to Aldous Huxley, an episode described in Huxley?s well-known The doors of perception. If the biochemical research had been successful in finding an LSD-like substance in people with schizophrenia, there would have been a Nobel Prize and worldwide recognition.

While best known for his pioneer research with psychedelic drugs, he had an equally impressive influence upon architectural training. Osmond advocated a functional, empirical, research-based approach, as contrasted with an intuitive formalism that treated buildings as great hollow sculpture. Many of these ideas were based on the work of Heini Hediger, Director of the Zurich Zoo, who used systematic experimental methods to identify appropriate species habitat. The hospital Osmond headed at Weyburn, Saskatchewan became a design research laboratory. He collaborated with architects Kyo Izumi and Art Allen to improve ward environment. He successfully encouraged the National Institute of Mental Health to fund research and training programs emphasizing functional aspects of architecture, assisted in the start of the innovative architectural psychology program at the University of Utah and the environmental psychology program at City University of New York. He coined the term sociopetal to describe buildings that brought people together and sociofugal for buildings that drove people apart (as a centrifuge spins things outwards). His 1957 article ?Function as the basis of psychiatric ward design? became a classic during the years when mental hospital architecture was on the front burner. Osmond advocated small, sociopetal buildings, with bedrooms clustered around lounge areas in a circular pattern.

Like some other creative thinkers, Osmond lacked the patience to write his own magnum opus. Fortunately, there were colleagues ready to lend assistance, resulting in over 11 co-authored books, including The chemical basis of clinical psychiatry (with A. Hoffer), Psychedelics (with B.S. Aaronson), The future of time (with H.M. Yaker and F. Cheek), and Models of madness (with M. Siegler). Some of his most intriguing ideas appeared in unpublished memos. He had a freeform printing style which he estimated saved a hundred hours a year in writing time. His friends and associates treasured and circulated these handwritten memos.

Osmond read and collected personal accounts of mental disorder. He had been introduced by a teacher to Thomas Hennell?s The witnesses, and later wrote a forward to a new edition of the book. He and colleague Robert Sommer read over a hundred autobiographies of mental patients and published several bibliographies. Like William James, Osmond believed that much could be learned from spontaneous reports of paranormal experience.

After leaving Saskatchewan, Osmond became director of the Bureau of Research in Neurology and Psychiatry in Princeton, NJ, and after that, adjunct faculty member in the University of Alabama Medical School and ward psychiatrist at Bryce Hospital in Tuscaloosa, AL. With his Bryce colleague Cynthia Bisbee, he developed a novel program in patient education. Most everything Humphry Osmond did was novel, for that was the way his mind worked. He was a good example of what William James called ?unhabitual perception.? He and Jane subsequently moved to Appleton, Wisconsin to live with their daughter Euphemia (Fee) Blackburn and her family. Humphry died quietly at home on February 6, 2004. He is survived by his loving wife, Jane; daughters: Helen and Fee; son, Julian, five grandchildren: Dan, Ben, Robert, Lucy and Chelsea; and sister, Dorothy.

Wednesday, February 18, 2004


Believe it or not, you inspired me with your bibliography to the point where I am now putting one together. Haven't done it yet but here's some of the best off the top of my head:

1) Cotterill's "A Chapter in Panton, Leslie, and Co." Pretty sure that is in a '44 issue of Southern Historian . I'll get this together tomorrow....

2) Upchurch, John C., "Aspects of the Development and Exploration of the Forbes Purchase", FHQ, Oct. ' 69, pp 117- 139. Excellent- I plan to annotate the bibliography and give summaries.

3) A New Order of Things by Claudio Saunt

4) Coker and Watson, the Indian Traders book

5) John Forbes's guide to West Florida with the city plan of Colinton

6) Red Hills of Florida by Clarence Paisley has a lot about the settlement by the Yonges and the Carnochans.

7)Outpost on the Gulf (the book about the History of Apalachicola)

8) Doster's Creek Indians and their Florida Lands

9)The Upchurch article has excellent sources from the litigation, Oct. '31 FHQ, Notes in Anthropology, Reports of Apalachicola Land Co., ASP, etc, etc.

I'll have it ready by May 25 but this is a good idea of what I have right now. Hopefully this will grow into a website.

Help me out, buddy. I need all the help I can get.

Good to hear from ya.



>From: "Jim Tiger"
>To: "'robert register'"
>Subject: RE: 200th Anniversary of the Forbes Purchase- May 25, 2004
>Date: Wed, 18 Feb 2004 09:33:44 -0800
>Do you have a bibliography of printed material pertaining to the Forbes

Hard Headed Women Have Nothing To Do With This Website



Tuesday, February 17, 2004


Sunday, February 15, 2004


Oddly enough, the history of the area was shaped by a court battle that did not even include the present site of the town. During the time the English colonized the area, a commercial firm Panton, Leslie, and Co. (sometimes credited as being the first company to operate chain stores) established trading posts throughout the region. Using sharp business practices, they indebted the Native American population to the company, then demanded title to large tracts of land to pay off the debt. The rights to these lands passed from the company to John Forbes, an associate of Panton and Leslie.

Known as the Forbes Purchase, the matter was further complicated by a second transfer to Colin Mitchell, and an expansion of the tract to include St. Vincent Island, some land near St. Marks, and other parcels that covered an area from Apalachicola to the Georgia border and beyond including present day Tallahassee. When the US acquired the territory from Spain, there began a raging debate over the legitimacy of the Forbes Purchase centered over whether the land belonged to the government or to the Forbes Company. During that time, many people settled in the area, and the town of Cottonton (later Apalachicola) was built up despite the fact that clear title to land was unavailable.

When, in 1835, in the last decision handed down by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall, the Forbes purchase was validated, Colin Mitchell formed the Apalachicola Land Company, and offered to sell the residents of Apalachicola the land their homes and businesses were built on. In reaction to “outrageous prices” a number of Apalachicola’s leading citizens began looking west to the natural harbor created by Cape Blaise (later renamed Cape San Blas).

Mr. Perkins

My name is Robert Register. I was brought up in Dothan but now I live in Northport across the river from Tuscaloosa. I am contacting you because I am working on commemorating an important anniversary.
May 25, 2004 will mark the 200th anniversary of the signing of the Forbes Purchase at Chiskatalofa, an Indian village located around Ellicott Mound #381 (survey mile marker built during the survey of the first U.S.
Southern Boundary in 1799.) This village was located 381 miles east of the Mississippi River near the point where Alabama, Florida and Georgia intersect on the west bank of the Chattahoochee in present-day Houston County, Alabama just south of Dothan. This deed of cession of 1.2 million acres east of the Apalachicola River to John Forbes & Co. began an entire series of treaties where Indians paid their debts with the only thing they possessed, their land.(Chiskatalofa was also the site of the 1811 negotiations with the Indians which expanded the Forbes Purchase to include St. Vincent Island)
Since Forbes got the land for about 5 cents an acre, this transaction is considered by many to be the greatest real estate deal in American History and it occurred in Houston County.

Ansley Whatley, a Dothan businessman, presently owns most of the land where Chiskatalofa stood. The Fitch family in Lucy owns the rest.

Since John Forbes moved to his sugar plantation, Canimar, in Matanzas Province, Cuba in 1817, many of the business transactions and lawsuits associated with the Forbes Purchase occurred in Cuba. When Forbes died in 1823, his son-in-law,Francisco Dalcourt(husband to Forbes' daughter, Sophia) was appointed executor of Forbes's estate in Cuba. Money from the sale of the Forbes Purchase became tied up in a series of lawsuits filed in New Orleans and Matanzas by those claiming to be owed money by the Forbes's estate. Litigation over the property granted to John Forbes by the Indians at Chiskatalofa in 1804 remained in the courts until 1923, a century after Forbes had died, when the Florida Supreme Court ruled that submerged land in Apalachicola Bay granted by the Forbes Purchase was owned by the State of Florida.

After being appointed Receiver of Pubic Monies in the General Land Office in 1825, Richard Keith Call sailed to Havana to examine the original Forbes Purchase documents . From then on, Call argued to overturn the Forbes's Purchase. According Coker and Watson:

At Call's urging, the U.S. Supreme Court delayed hearing the case until 1835. In the interim, the government sent Jeremy Robinson to Havana to obtain documents to support the government's arguments. Fully briefed by Call[my note: in Marianna], Robinson spent two years in Havana locating and identifying documents, but he died in 1834 before any of these papers were sent to Washington. Nicholas Philip Trist succeeded Robinson and uncovered forty-five documents in Havana, which the Supreme Court refused to admit as evidence.

This was Justice Marshall's last case and he upheld as perfectly legal the Forbes Purchase land grant.
The only people who have tried to help me with this are the members of the Innerarity Family forum at They are interested because their ancestor, James Innerarity from Mobile negotiated this cession of Indian land at Chiskatalofa in 1804. In order to close the deal, Mr. Innerarity had to promise to build a John Forbes & Company store at Prospect Bluff on the Apalachicola River. Nichols chose to build his "Negro Fort" near there in 1814 and Andrew Jackson built his Fort Gadsden on top of the ruins of this fort during the First Seminole War.

I found an article in the Panama City News Herald about Ft. Gadsden which quoted Mr. John G. Hentz as saying that the land where Ft. Gadsden stood was the most important historic spot in Florida. I agree with Mr. Hentz and I had a very long phone call with him about this subject .

Please feel free to forward this email to anyone and please help us to commemorate this important anniversary in May. After all, John Forbes also had a Spanish land grant giving him title to the entire coast from Apalachicola to East Pass at present-day Destin (not quite that far- East Pass in the 1800's was where the Holiday Inn of Destin now stands, east of the city of Destin). This land grant was annulled by U.S. courts because the date of the transaction had been forged in order to qualify under the terms of the Adams-Onis Treaty that gave Florida to the U.S. All this land therefore went directly into public domain after the Treaty of Moultrie Creek in 1823 extinguished Indian title.

I have a weblog. It is easy to get to. All you have to do is type "cuba, alabama" into Yahoo search engine or
check it out by clicking on

Best wishes,

Robert Register