Saturday, May 31, 2003

-----Original Message-----
From: Bluejean []
Sent: Sunday, August 13, 2000 4:00 AM
Subject: Nedra's Info on Heloise Isabelle Trouillet Innerarity

Here is what I have on Heloise Isabelle Trouillet:
My records show that she was born 9 Nov. 1791, Baptized on Thursday 19
1792 and died about 1820
Although baptized with the name Isabelle she was called Heloise. Her
were Pierre Trouillet and Isabelle Narbonne. Her godfather was John

and her godmother was her aunt Isabelle Chastang. Her maternal
was German immigrant to Pascagoula, but otherwise she (Heloise) was a
Creole from Mobile. Her Father was in the mercantile business and was
also a
Militia Captain. She was just under three years old when her father
died. We
know nothing of her childhood except through her mother. Three years
the death of Pierre, her mother had a child out of wedlock, the father
John Forbes who was then a partner in the Panton, Leslie and Company.
child was named Sophia Forbes. There was another child named in John
will by the name of Juana Forbes but since she was not baptized in
Mobile it
is not possible to determine if Isabelle Nabonne was the mother. Heloise
eight years old when her mother married Joseph Campbell in Mobile, AL.
the age of sixteen (1808), Heloise married James Innerarity in Mobile.

was a woman of wealth at age 16 having inherited property from both her
father's and mother's estates. In her will she clearly indicated that
was used to running a business. The business of her mother and
(Marie Joseph Naronne) was a small cottage plantation with slave labor.
brought into the marriage with James Innerarity $7,000 and part
ownership of
a plantation. James brought into the marriage $10,000
The Death of Heloise:
Twenty eight years old and presumably died in Cuba. Her youngest son,
Dalcour, died at the same time. A letter from James Innerarity to his
brother John, written on June 9,1820 from Sigupa said that he left
and the children in Canimar till the place gets in good condition for
James wrote that he had found 200 to 300 acres with crops growing and 53
slaves of which was sick. Perhaps Heloise and son, Francois Dalcour,
died of
the same sickness (They were still alive when James wrote his letter in
of 1820. Dalcour was born Aug 31, 1819 so he was very young when he
The Pace Library has one letter which mentions the death of Heloise
by George Gains in St. Stephens to John Innerarity, Jr. on Sept.

"Have you heard lately from my highly respected friend your brother
James. I
have been exceedingly distressed at the report which reached me here
weeks ago of the death of his lady and one or two of his children. I
hope it
is not true."
After Heloise's death James moved to Cuba to live on the family
which was then called La Heloisa (a sugar plantation) in Matanzas
east of Havana on the banks of the Canimar River.

The will of Heloise Isabelle Trouillet is dated July 7,1820. It was
in Cuba and a copy was sent from Cuba to Mobile. It is a lengthy will
and I
will format it to attach later.
I hope this information helps

Friday, May 30, 2003!menu.html
As a result of such articles as Law of No Land and On "Life And Debt" our readers have been introduced to how Black farm land has been seized not only in America but in Africa and the Caribbean. Our brother President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe has and is being continually projected as a villain in the white press. But newsletters like ours and other Black newspapers, like the Final Call, have brought the truth to the people, so now there is a national movement among Black people to help the people of Zimbabwe and change America’s foreign policies toward our sister country.

Great inroads have been developed with our Caribbean brothers and sisters to the south of us. Cuba has opened her market doors to Black farmers. She has heard our cry through the pages of Black newspapers, newsletters, the Internet and Black talk radio as we "spoke the truth on power" in 2002.

(note to all readers of "Cuba, Alabama")
Cuba's Other Dissidents - Youths Protest With Suspended Lives
By Karina Ioffee
Apr 9, 2003, 3:57

Editor's Note: As Fidel Castro's new crackdown throws opposition figures into jail for up to 27 years, many youth are protesting Cuban life in quiet if not passive ways. From operating illegal living-room businesses to coveting forbidden videos and magazines, writes PNS contributor Karina Ioffee, teenagers and youths reject the regime as they dream of life abroad. Ioffee ( is an award-winning freelance writer who has contributed to El Andar magazine.

HAVANA--Standing on his balcony in the bustling Vedado neighborhood in the heart of Havana, 25-year-old Richard watches the world go by. He hasn't left the house in two months and even then it was just for a few hours to attend an annual book fair. He doesn't study and works only occasionally, when he helps out his father at a local TV station. He seems to have withdrawn from the world.

But at a moment when Fidel Castro is outraging international rights groups and others with a crackdown against dissidents, sentencing activists and journalists to long prison sentences, Richard is one of a growing number of young Cubans who are protesting the regime in their own way. Unlike the dissidents in the headlines, who publish incendiary literature about the government or question Cuba's human rights record, their forms of dissent are more subtle: possession of a foreign magazine or CD, a rooftop satellite dish to catch foreign stations or running a small private enterprise operation out of a living room.

Richard's main connection to the street now is friends who visit. Sometimes they bring him an American flick, like "The Matrix" or "Pulp Fiction," or a music CD, bought from sailors who get them from abroad and resell them on Cuba's black market, or bolsa negra. "Anything that you want to buy, if you have dollars, you can get," says Alejandro G., an 18-year-old with spiky hair who sports trendy clothes and a messenger bag. "So much for the (U.S.) embargo."

American and other foreign movies are regularly shown on Cuban TV, unless they are critical of Cuba or the socialist system in general. Political documentaries from other countries are almost impossible to get, and pornography is out of the question. Although they consume any movies Cuba's two state-run channels throw at them, Richard and his friends prefer action-packed Hollywood titles like "The Fast and the Furious" and "Fight Club."

"Whatever brings us closer to the U.S. or other countries, we want to see," says Richard, who like the other youths asked that his last name not be used out of fear of reprisal. Fashion trends, slang and musical choices from abroad are things many young Cubans thirst for because it gives them a glimpse into a life they've never had -- the Cuban revolution dates to l959.

Besides curiosity, Richard has another big reason for keeping up with the news from America: he's been waiting for a visa for six years to join his older brother, grandmother and other relatives in Miami. He envisions flying across the 90 miles of water that separate the two countries and finally setting foot on American soil. He doesn't have plans except to study English and work.

"I don't know what to expect or what I'll do there, because I haven't seen it. All I know is that it's like a whole different universe," he says.

The Internet is quickly bridging the gap between the reality Cuban youth live and what exists in other countries. University students have access to e-mail and a heavily censored Internet, with sites like Hotmail messenger and Miami newspapers and TV stations blocked. Others can use post offices, where all e-mail is reviewed; customers must buy a card, usually for dollars, to access the Internet.

Books banned from Cuban stores include those by famous Latin American authors like Luis Borges, Mario Vargas Llosa and the new autobiography by Gabriel Garcia Marquez.

"The rest of the world is reading them, but we can't because we're Cubans," says Yuri, a 27-year-old economics student at the University of Havana who wants a scholarship to go to the United States or Germany. Yuri says he has felt like a second-class citizen in his own country ever since he was nine and a barber skipped him to attend to a customer from Spain. The tourist had precious dollars and Yuri, of course, did not. The incident made Yuri believe he would never be treated fairly in Cuba.

"I think the goal of many, many Cuban teens is to leave," says Alejandro, a 25-year-old who used to study law at the University of Havana but dropped out to start a movie rental business run out of his home. The business is illegal; he could be fined. "Of course, I am a little afraid, but you have to survive somehow," Alejandro says.

While they wait for visas out, Alejandro, Richard and countless others have learned to adapt to Cuba's closed society. They don't talk about anything controversial on the street and in school are careful not to express certain opinions. Not all are as hermetic as Richard, but on the street they try to blend in or steer clear of authorities or official organizations. Yet Richard and his friends don't clamor for regime change in Cuba. "Nobody wants to fight or have another revolution," says Richard. "They just want to put it all behind them."

Until they do, there is always another black market CD to listen to, or another movie to watch.

Cuba prohibits computer sales
by Robert Lebowitz, Digital Freedom Network
(March 26, 2002) In a new effort to curb Internet access, the Cuban government has forbade the sale of computers for personal use.

This past January, a resolution was passed with the following article: "The sale of computers, offset printer equipment, mimeographs, photocopiers…as well as their parts, pieces, and accessories, is prohibited to associations, foundations, civic and nonprofit societies, and natural born citizens."

"The sale of natural born citizens."

Marta Roque, leader of the Cuban Institute of Independent Economists, surmised that the government's crackdown was a reaction to the increased availablity of Web sites offering Cuban dissidents an opportunity to get their message heard.

"They knew that dissidents were buying computers and constructing Web sites," said Roque. Since Roque does not have access to her own site from Cuba, she sends written material to Miami, where it is posted on her Web site.

Roque herself recently created a Web site, which was designed to show the opposing viewpoint of life in the Communist state, independent of government influence. Roque's site is located at

A call to Cutisa, an electronics provider in Cuba, confirmed that the outlet was no longer selling computer equipment to the general public, but only to businesses and government. When asked why, the salesman replied simply that it was a government order.

However, according to Rosa Berre of Cubanet, it is still possible to get a computer either through a businessman selling off his old computers or else through the black market. In fact, other illegal means of circumventing Internet censorship have sprouted in Cuba: hackers regularly gain access to the Web, which can normally only be accessed through one server.

Still, according to Berre, obtaining computer equipment for personal remains a challenge. "It's not easy," said Berre. "You have to have a friend."


Wednesday, May 28, 2003


Today is the day. It was two centuries ago today, May 28, that Bowles was taken into custody. His fate had been sealed one year earlier when France and Great Britain had concluded the Treaty of Amiens on March 25, 1802. The fragile peace between the two powers meant the Brits had no further use for freebooters like Bowles. His Muskogee crews found themselves hanging from the Nassau gallows. Little did Bowles know that Great Britain had resumed the war against Napoleon on May 18, 1803.

Treaty of Amiens
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a "Definitive Treaty of Peace" between France and Britain.

Together with the Treaty of Lunéville (1801) the treaty of Amiens marked the end of the Second Coalition. The British had been alone since the withdrawal of the Austrians but Nelson's victory at Copenhagen (April 2, 1801) halted the creation of the league of armed neutrality and Napoleon's reverses in Egypt led to a ceasefire (October) and negotiations. The British negotiators were led by Robert Jenkinson, Lord Liverpool.

The treaty, beyond confirming "peace, friendship, and good understanding" arranged for the restoration of prisoners and hostages; Britain gave up much of the West Indies to the Batavian Republic and also withdrew from Egypt but was granted Trinidad and Ceylon; France withdrew from the Papal States; it fixed the borders of French Guinea; Malta, Gozo, and Comino were restored to the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and the islands were declared neutral. Various other minor issues were also resolved.

The treaty did not last. Napoleon's forces continued to operate in Italy, Germany and the Netherlands, the French annexed Piedmont in 1802, occupied Hannover in 1803 and assumed control of the new Swiss Federation. While Britain remained in control of Malta, openly refusing to leave in March 1803. The treaty provided no more than a brief lull in active hostilities. Britain revoked the treaty and renewed the conflict officially from May 18, 1803.


Saturday, 28th.
In the morning we received an invitation to the square to see two new kings made. They were the Cherokee interpreter and the Choctaw Deputie Mingo Homastabi. We found them seated side by side on the front seat of the kings' cabbin and beneath them a white deerskin. Soon after our entrance they proclaimed silence and began cooling the black drink which had brewed in the morning. Two orators advanced and one spoke with considerable force of gesture respecting the ceremony that was to be performed, the candidates chosen, and the virtures necessary to be possessed by a king. At ending he turned round and put into the Chactaw's hand a white wing. The other followed him and ended with the same ceremony. All the kings, chiefs, warriors etc. then got up & gave them their hand. The black drink was put round and the ceremony ended. Upon presenting the black drink, the waiters who serve it give two hollows, one deep toned & the other shrill, which they extend as long as they can continue to hollow. The beveridge is not badly tasted, nearly similar to weak coffee without sugar, but so many drink out of the same calabash, and from a small hole, and generally belch it out upon the ground after they have drunk, seeing so many occupied in such a filthy way renders drinking the cassina no very agreable thing to a white man. To return, on coming from the ceremony the Big Warrior, who seems to be the executive officer (and indeed is large enough to be an elephant) came and informed the agent that Bowles had been sent that morning to the Taskiges [old Fort Toulouse] under guard and they only waited for the irons to be put on to take their departure for Pensacola. I was anxious to see the villain and hesitated wether I should satisfy my curiosity. I felt impropriety but at length considering I was unknown to him and resolving not to speak to him I intended going. Accordingly, Mr. Hill, Mr. Forbes, and I, attended with a few more white men, rode down to where he was. It was a small island on the Talapouse. He was standing with his hands tied behind him and Brian Molton with a Spanish flag some distance in front. At our approach he turned pale and said he supposed his hour was come. Mr. Hill said no you have nothing to fear from us. He then ordered the hand-cuffs to be brought, which he allowed to be put upon him without a struggle, observing that he had once been a prisoner but never was tied before. As soon as the irons were rivetted, he was put on board a canoe and the crowd of men, women, and children immediately pushed it off. Mr. Barnard came a moment after to examine whether he had any papers but found none. On our return we understood his portofolio and papers had been carried to the square, where Colo. Hawkins was busily employed examining them in presence of a great concourse of Indians. When I went there, I found him seated with a number of anxious faces looking on expecting that a commission would be found. However, after opening them all and handing them to the Colo., it was generally agreed that there was none, altho' some Indians yet said that they recollected having seen it with a big seal. In the evening a number of the chiefs came to our quarters with a number of queries respecting Bowles, as if to satisfy themselves once more that they had done right. They retired perfectly satisfied, and some jokes passed upon B[owle]'s friends, who were said to be crying in a corner.

Tuesday, May 27, 2003

Hi Robert,

I would not expect anyone in the Harvard establishment to file any claims or make any statements that could be interpreted as anti-Castro or anti-Communist. I wonder - is the Atkins family mentioned any relation to the members of the Atkins family who were classmates at Dothan High School? As I recall, there was a branch of the family we knew that was rather well-to-do, and a branch that was just ordinary folks like the rest of us.

-----Original Message-----
From: robert register []
Sent: May 27, 2003 10:46
Subject: Fwd: Re: The Cienfuegos Botanical Garden After The Fall of Fidel

>From: John Coatsworth
>To: "robert register"
>Subject: Re: The Cienfuegos Botanical Garden After The Fall of Fidel
>Date: Mon, 26 May 2003 19:12:25 -0400
>I understand that Harvard University never received a deed to the
>land and structures dedicated to what was once called the Harvard
>Botanical Garden in Cienfuegos. Harvard has thus never filed a
>claim for the the property and has no interest in it whatever. The
>Atkins family, owners of the Soledad plantation (and thus the
>Harvard Botanical Garden located on it), did file a claim with the
>U.S. Government.
>I hope this information is useful to you.
>John Coatsworth
>> My name is Robert Register and I have a weblog called "Cuba,
>>Alabama". The URL is
>> I am very interested in the future of the Jardin Botanico de
>>Cienfuegos in a Post-Communist/Post-Castro Cuba. I was wondering
>>whether you could find out whether Harvard filed a claim with the
>>U.S. Foreign Settlement Claims Settlement Commission over the
>>confiscation of the Adkins Garden. Their website is
>>and I can probably get the answer from them, however, I was
>>wondering if you could give me any clues as to what Harvard plans
>>to do with their confiscated property after the end of Communism
>>and Fidel in Cuba.
>> Any information will be appreciated and feel free to forward
>>this email to anyone.
>>Best wishes,
>>Add photos to your messages with
>>MSN 8. Get 2 months FREE*.
>John H.Coatsworth
>Monroe Gutman Professor of Latin American Affairs
>David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies
>Harvard University
>61 Kirkland Street
>Cambridge, MA 02138
>Phone: 617-496-1605
>Fax: 617-496-2802

From the Journal of Estevan Folch, May 1803

Friday, 27
Today the Big Warrior returned and informed that every thing would be executed this night, that they were going to elect a king, and after the ceremony they would tie and secure Bowles, that he had seen him this morning and that he was perfectly easy in appearance but that he was well watch'd, altho' he did not know it. Orders were sent immediately to the blacksmith to make the hand cuffs, and they will be here this night.
May 27th. 10 o'clock A.M. Just as I was dispatching Moniac's negroe with my letters, I saw the chiefs go in a body to the place of B[owle]s's residence. On my return to Colo. Hawkins he informed me that they had determined upon examininig him themselves respecting his views, his commission, and the lies he had told. Several of the young half breeds stepped in amongst the crowd of Indians that surrounded, as they would admit no white person to be present, and brought in from time to time information that they were putting an infinitude of questions to him, which he answered as well as he could, and as some of them said, like a foolish or mad man. In the evening the Mad Dog called upon us with the report of the examination. The manner of delivering it showed that the council had now made up its mind respecting his fate. He himself now became somewhat suspicious that all was not going right, but his every motion was watched by the Cherokees, who lived in the same house and, I believe two Chreeks that the Singer had placed with him to defend him from the whites, A curious instance of these people's duplicity is here mentioned. Bowles let drop an expression that testified doubts of the whites, to the Big Warrior. "No,No," says he. "Don't be affraid of the whites. They will not be allowed to do you any harm in this land. You came with Indians, and you shall go from here with Indians." Bowles understood it one way and the Big Warrior soon explained his meaning....

State of Muskogee 1799-1803 Maryland adventurer William Augustus Bowles designed this flag after a congress of Creeks and Seminoles elected him director general of the State of Muskogee in 1799. The capital of this state was the Indian village of Mikasuke (near present day Tallahassee). Bowles was captured, turned over to Spanish authorities in 1803, and later died in a Havana prison. The State of Muskogee came to an end.

Sunday, May 25, 2003

Journal of Esteban Folch, May-June, 1803

Wednesday, 25th
Last night Croisiers, who had gone to see Bowles about eight at his quarters, returned and woke Mr. Forbes at midnight. He told him that he appeared to carry himself with great haughtiness, said that all the chiefs were on his party but four, that those who thought of apprehending him would perhaps be much surprised to find themself caught in their own trap, and Mr. Forbes and I had done very ill to come here and expose ourselves, knowing that the Indians were still at war with the Spaniards. This morning by my desire he called upon him again. I t seems he had overheard the Singer say something in Creek to the Cherokee inter preter which alarmed him, for Croisieres says his countenance betrayed him, for he turn'd pale....

Journal of John Forbes , 1803

Wednesday 25th

Last night Croisiere who had gone to see Bowles about Eight at his quarters returned & waked me at Midnight he told me that he appeared to carry himself with much haughtiness, said that all the Chiefs were gained over to his party excepting four, that those who had thoughts of apprehending him would perhaps be much surprised to find themselves Caught in their own Trap and that Stephen and I had done very ill to come here and expose ourselves knowing that the Indians were at War with the Spaniards- This morning by my desire he called upon him again; it seems he had heard the Singer say something in Creek to the Cherokee interpreter which alarmed him for Croisiere says his Countenance betrayed great marks of Dejection-........
KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN CIRCLE. The Knights of the Golden Circle was a secret antebellum organization that sought to establish a slave empire encompassing the southern United States, the West Indies, Mexico, and part of Central America, an area some 2,400 miles in diameter-hence the name Golden Circle. The Knights hoped to control the commerce of the area and have a virtual monopoly on the world's supply of tobacco, sugar, and perhaps rice and coffee. The association was organized in 1854 by George W. L. Bickley, a Virginia-born doctor, editor, and adventurer living in Cincinnati. It grew slowly until 1859 and reached its height in 1860. The membership, scattered from New York to California, was never large. Like other such secret societies, the Knights had an elaborate ritual, but the organization was poorly financed and even more poorly led. Bickley's main goal seems to have been the annexation of Mexico. Hounded by creditors, he left Cincinnati in the late 1850s and traveled through the East and South promoting a filibustering expedition to seize Mexico and establish a new domain for slaveholders. He found his greatest support in Texas and managed within a short time to organize thirty-two "castles," or local chapters, in cities that included Houston, Galveston, Austin, San Antonio, Jefferson, and La Grange. Among his prominent Texas supporters were Alfred M. Hobby, Elkanah Greer, George Cupples, Trevanion Teel,qqv and Capt. John B. Lubbock. Bickley received some favorable newspaper coverage in the Texas papers, and for a time courted Governor Sam Houston,qv who was reportedly initiated into the group. Houston, however, was opposed to the KGC's anti-Union stand and ultimately refused to throw his support behind it.

In the spring of 1860 the group made the first of two attempts to invade Mexico from Texas. A small band reached the Rio Grande, but Bickley failed to show up with a large force he claimed he was assembling in New Orleans, and the campaign dissolved. In April some KGC members in New Orleans, disgusted by Bickley's inept leadership, met and expelled him, but Bickley called a convention in Raleigh, North Carolina, in May and succeeded in having himself reinstated. He attempted to mount a second expedition to Mexico later in the year, but with Abraham Lincoln's election he and most of his supporters turned their attentions to the secessionist movement. Bickley served for a time as a Confederate surgeon and was arrested for spying in Indiana in July 1863. He was never tried but remained under arrest until October 1865 and died, broken and dispirited, in August 1867.

The KGC quietly dissolved during the war. Some at the time claimed that the organization operated as a fifth column in the North, and in the 1864 political campaign Republicans accused some antiwar Democrats of being secret members of the group. The charges, however, were largely unfounded, and although KGC forms and symbols were sometimes used by other groups, the Knights evidently had no organization in the Northern states; they did operate in Kentucky, a "border state." After the war sporadic reports of KGC activities cropped up, some of them as far west as West Texas and Oklahoma Territory, but by that time, for all intents and purposes, the organization had ceased to exist.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ollinger Crenshaw, "The Knights of the Golden Circle: The Career of George Bickley," American Historical Review 47 (October 1941). Roy Sylvan Dunn, "The KGC in Texas," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 70 (April 1967). Jimmie Hicks, ed., "Some Letters Concerning the Knights of the Golden Circle," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 65 (July 1961). Robert E. May, The Southern Dream of a Caribbean Empire, 1854-1861 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1973).

Christopher Long