Saturday, November 29, 2003


After reviewing your website, I am wondering why my almerr mater allows a revisionist psuedo-scholar and poverty pimp such as yourself to to set foot on our campus. Must be some carpet-bagging guilt transfer that we true Southerners do not share. I will contact the administration in an attempt to determine why you are here. Incidentally, what is your real name?

Hope to see you leaving real soon,


Shabbazz's presentation in Havana "Black Panther Kuwasi Balogun’s Journey to
Anarchism and Guerrilla Warfare: An Exploration of International Influences to
the U.S. from Spain and Cuba." Southwest Council of Latin American Studies,
March 1998, is a true distortion of what happened to the Black Panthers in Cuba.
Almost all Black Panther leaders who sought "asylum" in Cuba, including
Eldridge Cleaver and Huey Newton, left there at the first opportunity and
denounced the Castro regime as racist.
As early as 1969, Black Panther Raymond Johnson was denouncing that he and
other members of his party were "isolated and imprisoned" in Cuba. (Miami
Herald, June 26, 1969, page 17-D)
Black Panther Tony Bryant, who hijacked a plane to Cuba in 1969, voluntarily
returned to the U.S. in 1980 and wrote a book denouncing racism as practiced by
the Castro regime and the situation of dozens of African Americans who were
imprisoned in Cuba.
Milwaukee Black Panther Garland Jesus Grant, who hijacked a plane to Cuba in
January 1971, was jailed twice in Cuba and beaten by prison guards, who stabbed
him in the eye with a bayonet. He voluntarily returned to the U.S. in 1978. The
Washington Post, April 26, 1977, quoted Grant in Cuba as saying: "Im living
like a dog in Cuba." He said blacks are treated badly. "There are more racism
problems here than in the worst parts of Mississippi." He said going to jail in
the U.S. wouldn't bother him. "Just open my cell door, and I'll walk in," he
said. Grant pled guilty o a 15-year sentence in 1978.
Black Panther Richard Duwayne Witt, who hijacked a plane to Cuba on September
18, 1970, also returned eight years later to voluntarily serve his sentence is
the U.S.
African American Robert Williams, who in the early sixties operated "Radio
Free Dixie" out of Havana to incite blacks in the South, also returned to the
U.S. and testified before a U.S. Congressional committee denouncing racism in
African American Gregory Alexander Graves, a U.S. Army deserter who hijacked
a plane to Cuba in 1971, returned to the U.S. in June 1975 to face a 20-year
prison sentence rather than remain in Cuba.
Three other African Americans, Henry Jackson, Jr., Melvin Cale, and Louis
Moore, who hijacked a Southern Airways jet in 1972, also voluntarily returned
to the U.S. in 1980 to face prison sentences.
The only black radical hijacker who remains in Cuba is Michael Finney, who
murdered a New Mexico state trooper in 1971. He faces a death penalty upon his
Check out my website on hijackings to Cuba at
Here is a list of Fugitives In Cuba Wanted by the FBI
Maybe next time the Bush Administration allows another shipment of food to be
sold to the Cuban Government, they should ask for some of the fugitive cop
killers in return.

Quoting robert register :

> w:
> If you ever really want to lose weight, click on the following and it will
> make you so sick to your stomach you'll will either lose your appetite or
> vomit up whatever you may have in your belly.(while you read about Amilcar's
> great accomplishments, remember who paid for all this bullshit- the talk
> about Black Panthers in Cuba presented in Havana is the best as well as the
> articles printed in that Hip Hop Chronicle of Death and Disease known as The
> Source)

> saludos,

> roberto


Friday, November 28, 2003


If I live another five months, I will also be 54. Antonio De La Cova who is my mentor on the Cuba stuff is 53. Greg Spies who has been my research partner since '96, is 54. All of us are about the same age.Greg owns the oldest privately owned archaeological research organization in Alabama. We were all born to be "stars of stage, screen and radio."

The only mission I'm on is to understand the forces which have shaped ME!!!! If I can help anyone else get a better understanding of the truth, then great. The last time I was in the classroom was before '95 when I was still a Biology instructor in the public schools and community colleges. When I came to Bama in '68, I discovered the cabins and have studied them since. If you stand where George Wallace stood in the "school house door" and look over your left shoulder, you can see the back wall of Slaves Cabin #4. It is definitely "hush hush" and the University wishes those four buildings would go away along with me.

The Witts tell me they can do anything they want with the cabins and I guess they can cause nobody else seems to care about them. Slaves Cabin # 1 was built as a duplex. Pretty sure it's being used to store stuff like Christmas decorations now. It has a floor and you could live in it. Slaves Cabin #2 to the east is a garden shed. It was originally a creamery and has a stone lined well underneath the present floor. Slaves Cabin #3 was originally a kitchen but now it serves as the Witt's garage. Slaves Cabin #4 was also built as a duplex but in has no interior walls and has no floor and is in pretty sad shape. The walls and roof are fine though.

The best way to see them is to talk to Mrs. Witt's maids. Pretty sure it's still Dot and maybe Peggy. Don't know cause we just changed Presidents. All you have to do is knock on the back door of the second floor of the mansion and they'll give you the keys.

It is a sho' nuff "hush hush" thang. These left wing kooks at the university would probably burn them down if people started paying attention to them. Some of the most wonderful research on slavery has been accomplished at this university and it is totally ignored. The head of the African-American studies program is so far out he makes me want to puke. His damn wife is a bigger knucklehead than he is. My goal in life is to see all such folks leave the State of Alabama and if I have my way they will. Their names are Mr. and Mrs. Amilcar Shabazz. I wonder where he got that name from.

Let me hear from you.



>Subject: Re: Anne Witt Etc.
>Date: Fri, 28 Nov 2003 20:08:31 EST
>You sound as if you are on a mission. :-)
>Such as I am.
>I hadn't looked into the topic of slave life on a university campus though my
>Public History class project is documenting the AA history of University of
>West Georgia and the campus is located on what was a plantation. There was some
>mention of slavery association but not much. With the amount of time we had
>to complete our project we did not delve into that. However it is a subject
>worth investigating further.
>Are you a student? What has brought you to all this? What does Mrs. Witt plan
>to do with the cabins? What condition are they in? Are they being used? I
>would love to see them. Does she allow this? Is this a "hush-hush" thing that is
>coming out of the closet?
>Thanks for visiting our website. There is so much to be done and not nearly
>enough hours in the day. I am an undergraduate student (at age 54) and I feel
>so overwhelmed at times I just want to give up. But then I hear of someone like
>you out there who is as fascinated with our slavery history as I am and I get
>rejuvenated. Our people run scared and get pissed off with me when I start
>talking about the subject. I am finding it to be so interesting. I keep finding
>out something new to take me on another tangent.
>The excavation is a mock one for educational purpose. The UWG has done
>extensive digs on Sapelo Island, 1992-2001 and the collection is housed at the
>Waring lab on campus. I will be volunteering weekly to help catalog and computerize
>the collection. The mock dig will be my first learning experience with
>anything like this. After learning how to do it I will have a section at the museum
>planned off to show school children and adults how it is done. Have you done
>any digs yourself?





Great to hear from you. I have been very impressed with your work posted on the Innerarity site.

As far as I know, slavery was a fact of life at all universities in the Deep South. The Board of Trustees owned slaves. Students were not allowed to order them around but the maintenance staff and the faculty were often at odds concerning their opinions of where the slaves should work on any given day. The students owned slaves. These servants weren't allowed on campus but the students boarded them in town and rented them out to earn extra spending money. The faculty and the University President owned slaves. Many of the Yankee faculty,who came South as vocal abolitionists, in time often became very negligent slave owners. By university charter, the President's slaves were exempt from taxation and the President would often own so many slaves he would have to buy a plantation in order to be able to work all of them. The University also rented slaves from the townspeople. All of this occurred in one form or another at The University of Virginia, The University of North Carolina, The College of South Carolina, The University of Georgia, The University of Alabama and The University of Mississippi.

My letter was addressed to Mrs. Robert Witt, wife of the President of the University of Alabama. She has four brick slave cabins in her back yard which were built by Reverend Basil Manly, the second President of UA, in 1842. Because he came from Charleston, these cabins may preserve architectural traditions from the Charleston area. Dr. Manly planned the cabins and superintended their construction. There are detailed records of this in the Alabama Archives and History in Montgomery.

Architectural drawings of the slave cabins from the 1930s may be found in the Historical American Buildings Survey: Alabama.
I have identified many slaves who worked on the University of Alabama campus. My research comes from reading the Minutes of the Board of Trustees, the Faculty Minutes, Slavery in Alabama by James Sellers, Slavery in Tuscaloosa by Herzburg(Master's Thesis), the History of the University of Alabama by Sellers and a new biography entitled Basil Manly:Chaplain of the Confederacy.
I am going to forward this to Robert P. Forbes, associate director of the Gilder-Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition at Yale University. He will be very interested in your work and your website [note to Nedra Innerarity: Please invite Robert to join the Innerarity site. His email address is ]

The best book I have found on the excavation of slave cabins is by Barbara Health and is entitled Hidden Lives: the archaeology of slave life at Thomas Jefferson's Poplar Forest ( Univ. of Va. Press, 1999).

Helpful hint: If your anthropology instructor does not perform a detailed survey of the site and construct an accurate map before excavation, much will be lost in the dig.

Best wishes,

Robert Register

Thursday, November 27, 2003


On May 8, 1861, Mallory appointed James Dunwoody Bulloch, a merchant marine captain who previously had 14 years of service with the United States Navy, as the Confederacy's liaison in Europe. Bulloch was tasked with the responsibility of overseeing a shipbuilding program in Britain and France. Ultimately, he supervised the construction of 24 vessels in European shipyards. One of these warships was the CSS Enterprise, a steam and sail vessel with an ironclad hull and twin screws, that was built in 1865 by W. Denny & Brothers at Dumbarton, Scotland.

In order to hide the true identity and ultimate destination of the ships acquired in Europe, the Confederate Navy used the practice of assigning different names to each of these vessels at different stages in their voyage to Confederate service. For example, it appears that the name Yangtse was assigned to the Enterprise when the order for her construction was originally placed. The name Enterprise appears on her plans and was assigned for her run across the Atlantic and against the Union blockade. Her name would then have been changed to Black Warrior (an ironic choice!) when in service with the Confederacy as an armed commerce raider.

In fact, however, the Enterprise never saw service under the flag of the Confederacy. Because of the desire of Great Britain and France to remain neutral during the Civil War, only eight of the 24 ships which James Bulloch had constructed in Britain and France actually served with the Confederate Navy. The Enterprise was not one of these eight. She departed the Denny shipyards on November 3, 1865 as the Brasil, and was sold to the country of Brazil in 1866. She was then renamed Leopoldina and served as a transport ship for that South American country until she was retired in 1877.

The Confederate Navy had a large number of ships constructed in Europe to be used as blockade runners. The CSS Enterprise was one of those vessels.


The second incident the Warrior got itself into was later dubbed the “Black Warrior Affair” and nearly brought the United States to war with Spain. On 28 February 1854 the Black Warrior set anchor in the port of Havana, Cuba while on her way to New York from Mobile. As was customary, custom house officials boarded the Black Warrior to check the cargo manifest against the cargo on the ship. The ship’s manifest listed the cargo it had on board, which was over 900 bales of cotton, as ballast. This is not as unusual as it may first appear since the Warrior and many other ships routinely listed cargo as ballast if they were not planning to unload any of it in Cuba.
Later, when the owner of the boat sent a clerk to the custom house to get clearance for the ship to leave, the ship was refused clearance. Captain Bullock, the captain of the Warrior at the time, in an attempted to correct the problem went to the custom house. He soon discovered that the problem was with the manifest and immediately asked to alter the manifest to include the cargo. The Cuban government would not allow it even though their law stated that a ship could alter its manifest for a full 12 hours after laying anchor in the port. The next morning, Cuban authorities went to the Warrior to demand that the cargo be turned over to them. Captain Bullock, recognizing this to be an illegal seizure, told them that if he was forced to turn over his cargo, that he would lower his flag and abandon the ship. The Cubans were a little shaken by his proposal, but after conferring with their superiors, boarded the ship and began removing the cargo. Captain Bullock lowered his flag and abandoned his ship to the Cubans.
The passengers and crew of the Warrior went aboard the steamship Fulton which happened to be in Havana at the same time. Captain Bullock was fined for bringing the cargo into Cuba and the Warrior was seized. The ambassador to Cuba, William Robertson, sent a letter to the Secretary of State, William Marcy, detailing the situation and then things started to get really bad.
To rectify the problem, the Governor of Cuba hastily wrote a memo that suspended the regulation which allowed captains to alter their manifests after arriving in port. The memo was post-dated to make it appear that the rule was in effect before February 28, which made the seizure legal. The United States was enraged by this ex post facto law and demanded retribution for the crimes that had been perpetrated against its citizens. The United States also demanded that Cuba be sold to prevent an imminent conflict. The Spanish refused, of course, and America was brought to the brink of war. Remember, these were volatile times and the southern states really wanted Cuba annexed to make it another slave state. Fortunately for Spain and Cuba, the Kansas-Nebraska act was being debated at the same time and diverted the attention of the American public and the Legislature away from the Black Warrior Affair. After things cooled down a bit, the Spanish Government conceded its mistake and paid retribution to the Captain, owners, and passengers of the Warrior in the amount of $59,000.

In the winter of 1857, the Warrior was on a trip from Havana to New York when she encountered a gale between Havana and Cape Hateras. The Gale was so bad that the wheel house, life boats and bulwarks (sides of the ship above the upper deck for you land lubbers) were destroyed. All of the coal on the ship was consumed during this gale and the captain of the ship, Captain Smith, was forced to burn all the furniture, light woodwork, and the remaining spars. The Warrior eventually reached Old Point where she took on additional coal and went on to complete her trip.
The last voyage of the Black Warrior ended with a close encounter with the shore line of East Rockaway, NY on February 20, 1858. The ship was making a cargo and passenger run from Havana to New York and encountered heavy fog as it approached New York Harbor. While under pilot and during a high tide, the boat simply ran aground. In a New York Times article on February 22, 1858, it was assumed that the Warrior was a total loss since it ran aground during a high tide and that the expected low tide was going to be particularly low since a strong westerly wind had been blowing for several days. After several attempts, the Black Warrior was freed and then immediately stuck again. A storm eventually smashed the Warrior to pieces.
Today, the Warrior sits in 30-35 feet of water. The wreck is quite broken up and is scattered. The only recognizable parts of the ship are the engine, boiler and one of the paddle wheels. The ship is considered a novice dive due to the shallow depth, low current and about 15 feet of visibility. The most common artifacts still found are brass spikes and pins. With a little digging and some good luck, however, silverware and port holes can still be found. The ship is frequented by most of the local dive boats and is sometimes used as the first open water dive by some instructors. I have not yet had the pleasure of visiting the Warrior, but after doing this article I am inclined to say that I will be visiting it very soon. Just the rich history of this short lived ship makes it an interesting ship to add to any dive calendar. Who knows, maybe I'll see you down there.


Following the war, neither Bulloch nor his half- brother Irvine who sailed on the cruisers Nashville, Alabama and Shenandoah were offered Amnesty. In fact, he was the one Confederate naval officer that the U.S. would have put on trial. Therefore James Dunwoody Bulloch was to remain in Liverpool the rest of his life operating a successful merchant business. He was listed in contemporary Liverpool directories through the remainder of his life. The census of April 2, 1871 lists Bulloch's household at 5 Cambridge road Waterloo as follows:
James D. Bulloch head 47 yrs, merchant American trade b. U.S.( British subject. naturalized)
Harriet C. Bulloch, wife, 40 yrs b. U.S.
Stuart E. Bulloch, son, 8 yrs, scholar b. Lancaster, Waterloo
Martha Bulloch, daughter, 6 yrs, scholar b. Lancaster, Waterloo
Jane Howland servant, 26 yrs cook domestic b Wales
Ellen Tetley servant, 20 yrs waitress, domestic b Shropshire
Agnas McCormick servant, 20 yrs housemaid b Scotland

James Dunwoody Bulloch one of the great unsung heroes of the Confederacy died on January 9, 1901 and was interred in Toxteth Park Cemetery Liverpool. The family plot includes Harriet and 3 of his children-Henry Dunwoody Bulloch d Feb 1, 1871, James Dunwoody Bulloch Jr d Aug 31, 1888 and Martha who died in 1947. The plot also contains Bulloch's half - brother Irvine.

James Sr and Irvine's graves were decorated by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1968 and grave markers placed on January 7, 2001, the 100th anniversary of James Dunwoody Bulloch's death.

In October 1864, Bulloch was contacted by French shipbuilder Arman regarding whether he still wanted the ironclad Sphinx. After Napoleon III's order to dispose of the Confederate ships Arman had sold the 2 French built ironclads to 2 belligerent countries- Prussia and Denmark who under neutrality laws could not acquire them. With completion of the Prussian/ Danish war in 1864, the Sphinx was sent to Denmark who no longer wanted her. Bulloch bought the ship and under the command of Captain Thomas Jefferson Page with a Danish captain and the cover name Olinda she sailed from Copenhagen for a meeting with the blockade runner City of Richmond to onload a crew (mostly former sailors from the Florida) and supplies. The ship was commissioned CSS Stonewall and pulled into a Spanish port for repairs and coal. Proving to be a poor sailor, the Stonewall reached Nassau Bahamas on May 6, 1865 where news of the Southern surrender was received. Her arrival put the northern East coast into a panic, but Page subsequently sailed her to Cuba, and turned the ship over to Spanish authorities for $16,000 with which to pay off the crew.

As Bulloch stepped off the Hercules, Bulloch asked her captain to meet him the following morning at Woodside Landing on the Mersey, where he had arranged for a Shipping Master to recruit 30 or 40 seamen for an Enrica voyage to Havana. Bulloch returned to Liverpool where he re-chartered the Bahama ostensibly for a trip to Nassau but actually to transport himself, Raphael Semmes, his officers and additional crew for a rendezvous with the Enrica and Agrippina in the Azores. On August 20, the Bahama steamed into the remote harbor of Terceira, Azores joining Enrica and Agrippina. Captain Butcher had already lashed the ships together and begun transferring the heavy guns.

Bulloch coordinated every detail, supervising the placement of the guns, gun carriages and supplies that he had meticulously planned and laboriously acquired. As his final act, Bulloch witnessed Semmes' commissioning ceremony, and watched proudly as the Confederate flag unfurled at the peak. Gone forever was the Enrica. In her stead stood the new and powerful C.S.S. Alabama. Bulloch then departed with Captain Butcher on the Bahama bound for Liverpool. Semmes and the Alabama were to sink 58 Yankee ships over the next 2 years.
It is worth noting here that Stephen Mallory had promised Bulloch command of the Alabama after the Florida went to sea and Bulloch had lavished a parent's care on the Alabama since it was to be his ship. In the interim, Bulloch had opened negotiations with the Lairds for the construction of two ironclad rams intended to destroy the Union blockade. Mallory considered this project crucial and felt Bulloch too valuable in his present post to send him to sea.

At the outbreak of the war, Bullock was in command of the mail steamer Bienville which sailed the circuit between New York, Havana and New Orleans. The Bienville was berthed in New Orleans when word of the firing upon Fort Sumpter arrived. Bulloch immediately offered his services to the Confederate government but insisted that he was honor-bound to the Bienville owners to return the ship to New York. Local New Orleans officials pressed Bulloch to sell the vessel. When he refused, they threatened to seize it. Louisiana Governor Brown requested instructions from President Davis and was told " Do not detain the Bienville, we do not wish to interfere in any way with private property".

Upon arrival in New York, Bulloch found a message from Confederate Attorney General Judah P Benjamin asking him to come to Montgomery Alabama ( the original Confederate Capitol) without delay.

On May 8, 1861 Bulloch was interviewed by Stephen Mallory who asked if he would go to England as a Naval Purchasing Agent. Mallory was impressed with the following Bulloch qualifications which few other naval officers had:
1. He had business training and knew the commercial trade.
2. He was an expert in naval affairs and had served on every class of war vessel from 10 gun schooner to 80 gun ship of the line.
3. He had a clear understanding of international law.
4. He had supervised the construction of two of the ships he later commanded which gave him the ability to readily distinguish a good ship from a bad one.

Bulloch preferred to command a ship and accepted the post of Naval Procurement Agent in England on the condition that he would receive command of one of the first cruisers built. Mallory later reneged on this promise, insisting that no other person could be entrusted with the work that Bulloch was performing.

Wednesday, November 26, 2003

Florida sailors like Captain James McKay were exempt from Confederate service because their ships smuggled Florida cattle to Spanish Cuba, for much needed gold coins and supplies. Federal gunboats tried to control Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor. Blockades out of Key West never caught McKay, but 232 smugglers were arrested. When they failed to find smugglers, the gunboats attacked salt factories and sometimes innocent Cuban fishing camps. Salt and cattle were so vital to the war effort that people in these industries could avoid the Confederate draft.

When Union forces began the attack on the Mississippi Valley to split the Union in half, the Confederacy realized that Florida ranked second in the seceded states in cattle production. The grassy plains around Gainesville was the cattle center with as many as 10,000 cattle observed on Payne's Prairie. As the threat of Union troops grew greater, herds were raised further south to the Kississimmee Valley.

Of all the early Florida cowboys, none was as notable as Jake Summerlin , a daring and reckless king of prairie. He traded the peaceful life of a planter for the excitement of open cattle grazing. Later, when the rail routes were destroyed, Summerlin allied with McKay and A. F. Hendry in smuggling cattle to Cuba. Despite heavy Union gunboat operations, the smugglers utilized shallow draft boats and a knowledge of the maze of islands in southwest Florida to allude capture.

By 1863 Summerlin was rich. Cattle in Havana sold for $30 and only $3 to the Confederate government. Brigadier General John Newton in Key West sent a fleet of nine steamers and three schooners to Punta Rassa on the Caloosahatchee to try to close off the cattle trade. Cuban doubloons could buy a lot a weaponry for the Confederacy and Union did not want this Florida contribution to the Confederate resistance to continue.

I was on a blockade runner and I left Havana, Cuba, in the early part of May, 1864, and went to Mobile, Ala., bringing in a load of stores and ammunition needed for the Southern Army. Made a successful trip in about ten days. The name of that boat was the "Mary" and the Captain of that boat was Capt. Pete and the chief officer's name was Carter. We went back to Havana and brought another cargo of munitions and stores for the Confederate army to Mobile again, on this second trip. About ten or twelve days after the first trip, or the latter part of May, 1864, we got into Mobile with this cargo all right and discharged. Then our boat was there a good part of the Summer, trying to get through the blockade and until after the Confederate Government took over our boat. Then our crew was taken off and sent to Wilmington, North Carolina, where we [were] placed on the Confederate blockade runner "Owl". The battle of Mobile Bay was fought somewhere in August, 1864, to the best of my recollection as this was more than sixty years ago. The Northern fleet got into the Bay and came up the bay but did not take Ft. Morgan until about three weeks after they got in. Then there were a couple of boats, the "St. Nicholas" and the "St. Charles", [which] came down with Confederate Troops to Ft. Gaines. These troops were coming down to meet the fleet. They must have seen something suspicious at Ft. Morgan, because they turned back and went up town but they did not land. The Confederate flag in the morning was to the masthead with pennant on top, but there was not shooting nor no (sic) shots fired from the Fort all day long. I, myself, saw that. Admiral Farragut was in command of the Northern fleet, Buchanan in charge of the Confederates.

Another incident that happened at the start of the fight, there were four Yankee monitors came up to Fort Morgan and one of them struck a torpedo and was sunk. The other boats turned back and got out of the way and then the battle raged for the remainder of the day.

After Mobile Bay and Fort Morgan were taken three weeks later, they came up as far as Dog River Bar and started to shell the town, but we got ready to leave and went to Wilmington, N.C., and I shipped on the Confederate Blockade boat called "The Owl". The Captain in charge then was named Capt. Butcher and the ship was under the English flag at the time. It was afterwards put under the Confederate flag and Capt. Dunnington took charge under the Confederate flag. I cannot remember the mate's name well but I think it was Murdock, - I am not sure. I shipped on "The Owl" and went out to Bermuda. The Yankees seen us going out at night time and they fired about twenty or twenty-five shots after us. The next morning at daylight we saw a Yankee troop ship coming after us. At least it was the opinion that it was a Yankee troop ship. We threw our deck load of cotton overboard, which was our cargo for Bermuda, about all the Confederates had to sell or exchange, and that night in the dark we slipped away from her and got clear of her. We arrived safe in Bermuda. We made three trips, I think it was, running the Yankee blockade between Wilmington, Bermuda and Nassau, bringing in munitions and general supplies for the Confederates and taking out cotton from Wilmington, N.C.

While we were at Havana, Cuba, on one trip, some young men went aboard a Yankee New York mail boat named the "Roanoke" and made the Captain and officers of the ship surrender and took charge of the ship and brought her down to Bermuda and set fire to her on the outside beach of Bermuda.

One trip, after we got back to Wilmington, N.C., Capt. Moffett who was formerly Captain of the "Tallahassee" took charge of the "Owl" and Capt. Dunnington left. When Capt. Dunnington took charge he displaced Capt. Butcher and when Dunnington left, Moffett [Maffitt], formerly on the "Tallahassee" took charge of the "Owl". I was a member of the crew on the "Owl". At the close of the war, I went to Halifax, Nova Scotia.

After this number of years and getting advanced in age, I am eighty-one (81), will be eighty-two (82) years old, I thought it would be appropriate that I make a claim for pension on account of my services on the blockade runners and supplying the Confederate Army with ammunitions (sic) and supplies during the war.

I have always been able to work as a laborer loading ships in Pensacola Bay at Pensacola, Florida, where I have lived and the only reason I am asking for this pension is because I know I did good service for the Confederate Government, and now I am not able to work. I have no means and that is why I am asking for recognition of my services to the Confederate Government.




Before the undersigned authority this day personally came and appeared John O'Brien of Pensacola, Florida, who being by me first duly sworn, says that the foregoing statement is true and correct as to his services for the Confederate Government as a member of the crew of the Blockade runners, and that the other facts relating to the other incidents mentioned are true to the best of his knowledge and recollection.

[signed: John O'Brien]

Sworn to and subscribed before

me this 9th day of April 1927.

[Signed: Alma E. Fisher]


Counterfeit One Hundred-Dollar Note
Dated "Feb. 17th, 1864."
Over-issues of currency, the tightening Union blockade, and rebel defeats after Gettysburg doomed any hopes that southern moneys would recover from their downward spiral. Counterfeiting was but one other persistent problem. Throughout the war, northern and foreign printers produced numerous fake Confederate notes as souvenirs and for clients who smuggled them into the South. One Philadelphia printer advertised to sell $2,000 in Confederate notes for 50 United States cents. Exhibited here are a genuine $100 Confederate note and a counterfeit produced in Havana, Cuba. In a side-by-side comparison, the counterfeit (bottom) is fairly easy to detect. Notice the differences in the details of the soldiers and the lack of refinement of in the counterfeit's central portrait of Lucy Pickens.

QUINTERO, JOSE AGUSTIN (1829-1885). José Agustin Quintero, attorney, journalist, and diplomat (incorrectly listed as "Juan" in The War of the Rebellion: The Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies), was born in Havana, Cuba, on May 6, 1829, to Antonio and Anna (Woodville) Quintero. He also worked as an archivist, newspaper editor, diplomat, and confidential Confederate agent for President Jefferson Davisqv in Brownsville, Matamoros, and Monterrey, where he played a significant role in establishing the Matamoros trade. He was a precocious child and was sent to the United States to complete his education; he is said to have attended Harvard, although there is no official record of his enrollment there. During his stay at Cambridge Quintero allegedly became friends with Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and Ralph Waldo Emerson. He returned to Cuba around 1848 to enter law practice, but he became involved in the movement for Cuban independence that centered around Narciso Lopez and was court-martialed and sentenced to death. But he escaped from Castle Moro and fled to Texas. In 1856 he became editor of the San Antonio Spanish-language newspaper El Ranchero (see SPANISH-LANGUAGE NEWSPAPERS) and Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper.

Quintero traveled widely throughout Texas and northern Mexico and gained a familiarity with the ways and customs of the people on both sides of the border. He became friends with Mirabeau B. Lamarqv and assisted in the study of Spanish manuscripts now included in the Lamar papers. In 1857 he served as assistant clerk of the Texas House of Representatives. He met Governor Santiago Vidaurriqv of the state of Nuevo Le?n y Coahuila in 1859 during the governor's brief, self-imposed exile in Austin. Their friendship was maintained by sporadic correspondence until the outbreak of the Civil Warqv brought them into a close and valuable working relationship for the Confederacy. Quintero lived briefly in New Orleans, where he was admitted to the bar, but soon moved north as a journalist. With the outbreak of the Civil War, he enlisted in the Quitman Guards of Texas. After his company was sent to Virginia, he was assigned to the diplomatic corps, and President Jefferson Davis appointed him confidential agent of the Confederate government in Mexico.

Quintero quickly demonstrated the shrewdness, insight, and tenacity necessary to achieve diplomatic success. Largely as a result of his efforts, the Matamoros trade was opened up for Texas and the Trans-Mississippi Department. After the federals captured Brownsville in November 1863, Quintero crossed the river to Matamoros and continued his work. He spent considerable time in Monterrey, where he maintained diplomatic relations with Governor Vidaurri. Under his careful eye more than 320,000 bales of cotton (about one-fifth of all Confederate cotton exports) were slipped past the Union blockade at the mouth of the Rio Grande and exchanged for valuable war materials in England and Europe. After the end of the war Quintero accepted a position with the Galveston News,qv but soon moved to New Orleans, where he practiced law and wrote for the New Orleans Daily Picayune. He married Eliza F. Bournos, and they had four children. Quintero served as New Orleans consul for Belgium and Costa Rica, and at the time of his death around September 8, 1885, he was editor of the Picayune.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gerardo Castellanos Garc?a, Panorama hist?rico; ensayo de cronolog?a cubana, desde 1492 hasta 1933 (Havana: Ucar, Garc?a, 1934). James W. Daddysman, The Matamoros Trade: Confederate Commerce, Diplomacy, and Intrigue (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1984). New Orleans Daily Picayune, September 8, 1885. Ronnie C. Tyler, Santiago Vidaurri and the Southern Confederacy (Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1973).

James W. Daddysman

Tuesday, November 25, 2003

Mrs. Witt:
I have heard some horrible tales about the renovation of the University Club. Not only was no archaeology done even though umpteen tons of dirt from one of the oldest buildings in Tuscaloosa were removed around the old slave quarters but I have heard that the discovery of a vault, numerous bones, and numerous artifacts from the collapsed north wall have been concealed by the contractor.The story goes that money has been passed to keep worker's mouths shut. It may all be rumor but I don't think so. That was historic ground torn apart with no consideration. Please never have this happen to the President's Mansion while you are there.
If you ever get in the mood to do some archaeology, have them dig up the well in "Slaves Cabin #2" in your backyard.
I have 42 notecards on University servants. I have a little time so I'll share some of them with you.

Boysey(proper name William) November 22, 1843
Mary's son ; died of whooping cough at daylight 7 yrs. old birthday Feb. 10 ( see Manly diary April 10, 1838 page 125. See Manly recipe book for description of the case and prescription.
Funeral in President's Mansion
Buried in University Burying Ground in the afternoon

Cory- Garland's carriage driver- drove Mrs. Garland and the girls to the woods edge when the Yankees burned the University. (may have accompanied the Garlands to Vanderbilt along with other Garland slaves after emancipation)

Jack Friday, May 5, 1843?
died of pneumonia before 2 o'clock in the afternoon
from Manly, "He was an African, a member of the Methodist church- honest and faithful- did as much and as well as he knew how."
buried in University Burial Ground
page 240 - Cabins ready 1842 Manly received part of wife's inheritance which included Jack. Jack was 51. Manly in 1844 owned 18 slaves. p. 247 In 1855 he had 34. Do not know location of Manly's plantation on the Black Warrior. President of the University's negroes not considered taxable under charter of the University.

Slave Cabins Only unidentified buildings on the 1999 campus map
1852- Not even included on Manly's Survey of University property(page 30 of Illus. History of UA)

Sharecropping 38 Manly slaves in 1860 June 20, 1865- 28 Manly slaves on the Black Warrior plantation sign contracts to produce 10 acres of corn each.

Morgan (check on Morgan and Luna concerning Barnard's trouble in Oxford. Good chance that Luna was the girl who was raped by the Ole Miss student which caused Barnard to refugee North)
In 1860, Morgan with 6 students stole Mose's chickens.
Manly:"Morgan pimps the young Luna whom they[students] use in great numbers nightly."

The Arthur Negroes Herzburg?(Sellers's student who wrote his Master's thesis on Tuscaloosa slavery in 1950's) sold peanuts, candy, tobacco
baked possum and sweet potatoes sold door to door in the dormitories

Prince- servant owned by student Oran Milo Roberts (later Governor of Texas). Hired out to people in town. University students were not allowed to have their slaves on campus.

Dr. Stafford's Archie- sold "mean whiskey to students". Rented Dr. Stafford's carriage and horses out to students for the night. Stafford lived on campus.

Slave Girls- Dearing is attacked on campus when he comes to retrieve a slave girl kidnapped by students from his house (the present day University Club)-from
Oran Milo Roberts Reminiscences of the University of Alabama
p. 77 Frederick Thomas English Drunk on opium and brandy while traveling on steamboat coming up from Mobile. Grabbed slave girl and took her to his room.

Lydia #2 page 240 21 years old in 1842. January 11, 1842
received 5 slaves from Rudulph(Manly's father in law)
Hetty age 2 in 1842
children Fanny b. Dec. 23, 1844
Serena b. Oct. 31, 1846
d. May 27, 1849

Nancy 1845
old nurse (bad servant) 40-45 when bought
April '49 died

Moses January 16
January 1, 1845 (Hiring Day)
bought by the University from J.E. Rial for $600.
He is between 28 and 30 years of age.

Lab Fees
Junior Class Students in Washington Hall collect $75 to hire Barnard's slave so Barnard could have an assistant for his experiments.

This is just the tip of the iceberg but after reading about your interest in the President's Mansion today in the CW , I thought you might be interested.
Best wishes,
Robert Register

Sunday, November 23, 2003

Nedra Innerarity Creamer - Nov 16, 2003 View | Viewers | Reply to this item
Categories: Historical Sites, Inneraity Island Area Here is the History on the Island Innerarity Island is located at the mouth of Perdido Bay(Perdido means Lost).
Explorers named the bay in 1702.

We can only assume they were lost at the time.

It is 20 miles by land or water southwest of Pensacola.

In 1815 the western half of wilderness bordering the lost waters of Perdido Bay was granted to John Innerarity by the King of Spain.

The grant was for 750 "arpents" (400 acres) and was recognized by the Congress of the United States.

Innerarity Island was used throughout the centuries for recreation until it was bought by Ben White and development was started. He recognized the beauty of the Island and vowed to keep its natural beauty.

The history is worth looking into.

Indians used it for an excellent fishing spot where they smoked their catch under the giant oak trees Spanish, British and
Americans have walked the shores and dug Indian pottery, dating to the Depthford Peroid, 1,000 years before Christ.

Archeological and treasure researchers the Island leaving large pockmocks, indicating that their efforts have been rewarded.

Both Florida State Universities have collections of Artifacts derived from official explorations on Innerarity Island.

Survey's have been conducted looking into the official identification of ceremonial mounds and surrounding Indian village sites.

Some groups search for "Pieces of eight" or gold around the shoreline and interior.

The treasure of history is abundant such as the rendezvous of pirate fleets, Spanish adventurers as well as British and French merchantmen. It was then that the Perdido Bay was not empty waters in the Gulf as it is now. It was once thirty miles through the Pensacola Bay to the Gulf from Perdido Bay and Pirates such as Jean LaFitte and the infamous Steve Bonnet could safely hide among the many Island bayous. They buried their stolen treasures up and down the coast for safekeeping.

It was in Perdido bay waters that Bonnet, the pirate, saw Theodosia Alston, the daughter of Arron Burr, walk the plank rather than submit to Bonnet'screw. Gold and silver articles with her family crest were traced to Bonnet's pirate ship.

The Spanish had taken this piece of paradise from the Indians in 1570.

Lost, and later found as a boundary between French Louisiana and Spanish Pensacola,then granted to John Innerarity, the Island and Perdido bay lay in waiting for 170 years.

Now 400 over 400 years later the Island is no longer "Lost"